Saturday, November 30, 2019
The Arctic Monkeys is a band that can be consider many genres. Their music can be classified as many different types of rock including Indie rock. When I listened to the song Ã¢â¬Å"No BusesÃ¢â¬ for the first time, I found it very interesting and I liked the way the beats sounded. Aside from the sound, I looked at the lyrics to find a deeper meaning to the songs. In the song Ã¢â¬Å"No BusesÃ¢â¬ it shows a sense of longing. The artist wrote this song most likely trying to show a form of breakup. In the first verse, the song shows some alliteration of the sound Ã¢â¬Å"LÃ¢â¬ when saying Ã¢â¬Å"loads of loveÃ¢â¬ to convey that you can receive so much love, but once you stop giving any, no one is willing to show it anymore. You could also say that the verse is saying that the people around you could give you constant love until you stop showing it yourself. We will write a custom essay sample on Review on No Buses by the Arctic monkeys or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page There is another part in the 4th verse where it uses the sound Ã¢â¬Å"tÃ¢â¬ to show that there is a fresh wound to the heart created by Ã¢â¬Å"ladyÃ¢â¬ . When listening to the lyrics, I found that the chorus is repeated twice (like most songs). The chorus is saying how Ã¢â¬Å"ladyÃ¢â¬ thinks she is unique and can get away with the way she is acting, but in really she is just the same as the others. The song aso uses the line Ã¢â¬Å"Lady whereÃ¢â¬â¢s your love gone?Ã¢â¬ in the first and fourth verse to show how the speaker misses the love he used to get from Ã¢â¬Å"LadyÃ¢â¬ . In the final verse the line Ã¢â¬Å" realizing it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t change a thingÃ¢â¬ is repeated twice to show a feeling of regret because he cannot get what he so wishes he could have. The feeling of the song is never questioned when listening to it. By listening to the lyrics I could tell that the speaker had deep feelings for the girl, but she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel the same towards him. In the lines Ã¢â¬Å"how he longs for you to long for him once more, just once moreÃ¢â¬ shows how heart-broken the speaker is and how he misses Ã¢â¬Å"ladyÃ¢â¬ dearly. In the last verse you can see how the speaker is saying that you can try to go after something that you canÃ¢â¬â¢t have all you want until you realize that you cannot have it. By then you just give up and you are stuck knowing that all your efforts were for nothing After analysing the song over and over multiple times, I have grown to liked this band. Although after listening to some of the other song they have to offer, I found that I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get into them like I did with Ã¢â¬Å"No BusesÃ¢â¬ . I would recommend this band to friends because I know that they have good music, it just isnÃ¢â¬â¢t my taste.
Monday, November 25, 2019
The Legacy of Darwins On the Origin of Species Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species on November 24, 1859 and forever changed the way humans think about science. Its not an exaggeration to say that Darwins landmark work became one of the most influential books in history. Decades earlier, the British naturalist and scholar had spent five years sailing around the world aboard a research ship, H.M.S. Beagle. After returning to England, Darwin spent years in quiet study, examining plant and animal specimens. The ideas he expressed in his classic book in 1859 did not occur to him as sudden bursts of inspiration, but were developed over a period of decades. Research Led Darwin to Write At the end of the Beagle voyage, Darwin arrived back in England on October 2, 1836. After greeting friends and family he distributed to scholarly colleagues a number of specimens he had collected during the expedition around the world. Consultations with an ornithologist confirmed that Darwin had discovered several species of birds, and the young naturalist became fascinated with the idea that some species seemed to have replaced other species. As Darwin began to realize that species change, he wondered how that happened. The summer after returning to England, in July 1837, Darwin began a new notebook and took to writing down his thoughts on transmutation, or the concept of one species transforming into another. For the next two years Darwin essentially argued with himself in his notebook, testing out ideas. Malthus Inspired Charles Darwin In October 1838 Darwin re-read Essay on the Principle of Population, an influential text by the British philosopher Thomas Malthus. The idea advanced by Malthus, that society contains a struggle for existence, struck a chord with Darwin. Malthus had been writing about people struggling to survive in the economic competition of the emerging modern world. But it inspired Darwin to begin thinking of species of animals and their own struggles for survival. The idea of survival of the fittest began to take hold. By the spring of 1840, Darwin had come up with the phrase natural selection, as he wrote it in the margin of a book on horse breeding he was reading at the time. In the early 1840s, Darwin had essentially worked out his theory of natural selection, which holds that organisms best suited to their environment tend to survive and reproduce, and thus become dominant. Darwin began writing an extended work on the subject, which he likened to a pencil sketch and which is now known to scholars as the Sketch. The Delay in Publishing On the Origin of Species It is conceivable that Darwin could have published his landmark book in the 1840s, yet he did not. Scholars have long speculated on the reasons for the delay, but it seems that its simply because Darwin kept amassing information he could use to present a lengthy and well-reasoned argument. By the mid-1850s Darwin began working on a major projectÃ that would incorporate his research and insights. Another biologist, Alfred Russel Wallace, was working in the same general field, and he and Darwin were aware of each other. In June 1858 Darwin opened a package sent to him by Wallace, and found a copy of a book Wallace had been writing. Inspired in part by the competition from Wallace, Darwin resolved to push ahead and publish his own book. He realized he could not include all his research, and his original title for his work in progress referred to it as an abstract. Darwins Landmark Book Published in November 1859 Darwin finished a manuscript, and his book, titled On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races In the Struggle for Life, was published in London on November 24, 1859. (Over time, the book became known by the shorter title On the Origin of Species.) The original edition of the book was 490 pages, and had taken Darwin about nine months to write. When he first submitted chapters to his publisher John Murray, in April 1859, Murray had reservations about the book. A friend of the publisher wrote to Darwin and suggested he write something quite different, a book on pigeons. Darwin politely brushed that suggestion aside, and Murray went ahead and published the book Darwin intended to write. On the Origin of Species turned out to be quite a profitable book for its publisher. The initial press run was modest, only 1,250 copies, but those sold out in the first two days of sale. The following month a second edition of 3,000 copies also sold out, and the book continued selling through successive editions for decades. Darwins book generated countless controversies, as it contradicted the biblical account of creation and seemed to be in opposition to religion. Darwin himself remained mostly aloof from the debates and continued his research and writing. He revised On the Origin of Species through six editions, and he also published another book on evolutionary theory, The Descent of Man, in 1871. Darwin also wrote prolifically about cultivating plants. When Darwin died in 1882, he was given a state funeral in Britain and was buried in Westminster Abbey, near the grave of Isaac Newton. His status as a great scientist had been assured by the publication of On the Origin of Species.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Challenges Doing Business in India Essay Trade barriers are created to encourage domestic players by making it more difficult for foreign firms to compete. Traditionally, India has had several types of trade hurdles for foreign exporters, such as, Import Quotas, Subsidies, Trade Samples and Tariff/Duty. The most critical barrier to trade is tariffs or the tax imposed on imports. High tariffs in several sectors continue to bar foreign businesses from increased market access. Traditionally, Indian bureaucracy has been mired in red tape which proved to be a frustrating experience for foreign investors. These include limited access to Government offices, cumbersome and multitude paperwork, lack of coordination between various departments processing the documentation, long waiting period for approvals, and above all ambiguous rules. However, with the economic reforms of early 1990s, the level of bureaucratic hurdles which the MNCs had to overcome, gradually reduced making it easier to do business. Corruption is another big hurdle when doing business in India. Areas like electricity supply, judiciary (particularly lower courts), Police, land administration are counted in the most corrupt category. Since all these are essential in building up a business, corruption proves to be a major hurdle for starting business in India. It has long been felt that roads and communication in India need substantial investment in order to make them world class. Problems with the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s education and power situation are also counted amongst the toughest obstacles for doing business. Today, there is an increased private participation in ports, roads and other key sectors. Infrastructure development has emerged as a niche market for foreign investors in India with several states looking to build world class infrastructure. The problem area is the absence of a clear-cut policy framework, which has hampered private investment in the infrastructure sector. Challenges Doing Business in India. (2016, Dec 31). We have essays on the following topics that may be of interest to you
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
European Parliament elections - Essay Example European Parliament elections Integration processes get their legal implementation through variety of agreements between states on creation of various unions and organisations. European Union belongs to such organisations. One of the basic structures of this organization is the European Parliament. According to the EU legislation it represents people of European Union member-states, Ã¢â¬Å"the European Parliament represents the people of the states brought together within the European CommunityÃ¢â¬ (Fouloy, 1994, p. 77). The agreement, which assumed the creation of joint Parliament of the signatory states, was a part of the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, which begun the European Union. The first European parliament consisted of 68 deputies delegated by national parliaments of the signatory states of the agreement. The first meeting, in which 142 deputies have taken part, has passed in March, 1958 in Strasburg, during which parliament has got the name Ã¢â¬Å"The European Parliamentary AssemblyÃ¢â¬ , which in March, 1968 has turned in the European Parliament. For today the European Parliament consists of representative of 25 member-states of the European Union, which choose their deputies by universal, equal, and secret voting (this principle has started to work since September, 1976). The quantity of deputies in European Parliament is caused by population of every concrete state of the European Union.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Public Affair class summary -- - Essay Example To be successful in the media relations a complete understanding of different media types such as print, broadcast and online media is essential. Moreover, the message is not always delivered as intended so to deal with the criticism an appointed spokesperson must have an authoritative, factual and credible way of approaching things. The criticism should be dealt with logical reasoning and denial is not an appropriate way of dealing. Moreover, the communications person must have a strong grip on all the media parameters with written plans, various options and deep investigative period to control the crisis and leaks (Lee, Neeley and Stewart). This chapter is well focusing on the media relations. Fitch in the chapter suggests that a person should choose to work in an organization or with the boss who shares the similar values because it will make that person a stronger advocate of his missions. Before starting up with any organization a proper research should be done on its history, previous records, their stated goals, missions and strategies and the long term plans. Clashes of interests in this line can lead to failure so using the strategic positioning is mandatory. After completing the research and acquiring information about resources get familiarized with the media itself. It could be done by analyzing the perspectives of all communicators such as reporters and then by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of those potential partners and looking up for all opportunities and threats. The most important asset is the press list so it should be built and updated on time. Further there should be an emphasis on internal environment and timely strategies for the control of politics are essential. Other than that, the communication strategies should be developed so that all the criticisms and reviews of people could be handled intelligently (Fitch and Holt). The major focus of the chapter is on explaining
Saturday, November 16, 2019
COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM Essay Systems techniques are tools used in the analysis, design, and documentation of system and subsystem relationships. They are largely graphical (pictorial) in nature.Ã Systems techniques are used by accountants who do systems work. Documentation includes the following types of tools: Narratives (written descriptions) Flowcharts Diagrams Other written material For this subject, we only need to discuss two (2) of the most common documentation tools: Data flow diagrams Graphical descriptions of the sources and destinations of data. They show: Where data comes from How it flows The processes performed on it Where it goes Include three types: Document flowcharts describe the flow of documents and information between departments or units. System flowcharts describe the relationship between inputs, processing, and outputs for a system. Program flowcharts describe the sequence of logical operations performed in a computer program DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS A data flow diagram (DFD) graphically describes the flow of data within an organization. It is used to: Document existing systems Plan and design new systems There is no black-and-white approach to developing a DFD. Data sources and destinations Appear as squares Represent organizations or individuals that send or receive data used or produced by the system An item can be both a source and a destination Data flows Appear as arrows Represent the flow of data between sources and destinations, processes, and data stores As you probably surmised(GUESS) from the previous slides, if a data flow is two-way, use a bi-directional arrow.If two data elements flow together, then the use of one data flow line is appropriate.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
The Dark Side of Nathaniel Hawthorne in The House of Seven Gables In The House of the Seven Gables, Nathaniel Hawthorne exhibits the fate of a family due to a curse by analyzing the most Ã¢â¬Å"disagreeableÃ¢â¬ secrets of a manÃ¢â¬â¢s soul (Great Lives 1077). Hawthorne shows the decay of an aristocratic family due to the sins of the past. He uses allegory within his characterÃ¢â¬â¢s personalities and emotions to expose Ã¢â¬Å"the truth of the human heartÃ¢â¬ (biography). HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s chosen location for this novel reflects greatly on his life and specifically his childhood. Salem is the home of The House of the Seven Gables. Ironically this is the same town in which he was born in and lived in through adulthood. He was raised in this town, therefore he was very aware of the dark side of its past. He was a part of this past through his ancestors. One of which was a judge in the infamous Salem witch trials. At this trial HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle is cursed by a so-called witch with the words, Ã¢â¬Å"God will give you blood to drinkÃ¢â¬ (Magill 2736). This curse is much similar to Matthew MauleÃ¢â¬â¢s curse on the Pyncheon family (Magill 2734). The solitude of his characters reflects his childhood as well. Growing up, his 2 mother kept herself away from people which led him to become a very solitary man for much of his life. As a young child Hawthorne was lamed. During these years he became well learned with the writings of Edmund Spenser, John Bunyan, and William Shakespear(CSLF 1570). From these men he has gained technique and style. Having lived in Salem most of his life, Hawthorne is extremely influenced by Puritanism. His writings greatly reflect this. Hawthorne deals much with the sins of a man being pasted down for generations. This is very much a Puritan belief. Puritans are a very superstitious type of person. Thus, this explains HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s belief that a curse, such as MauleÃ¢â¬â¢s curse, can destroy a well-to-do family (Walker 1577). HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s characters dealt with guilt forced on by their ancestor, much of which goes back as far as the Puritans. He commonly plays guilt against innocence within one character, Hepzibah Pyncheon. She feels strongly that she must maintain the lifestyle and tradition of her ancestor Colonel Pyncheon. He shows her many personalitie... .... Ã¢â¬Å"Nathaniel Hawthorne.Ã¢â¬ Encarta Encyclopedia. (1997) Ã¢â¬Å"Nathaniel Hawthorne.Ã¢â¬ The Critical Temper. Ed. Martin Tucker. Vol. 4. A Library of Literary Criticism. Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1979, 509-514. Ã¢â¬Å"Nathaniel Hawthorne.Ã¢â¬ World Literature Criticism.Ã¢â¬ Ed. James P. Draper. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale Research Inc., 1992, 1592-1605. Ã¢â¬Å"Nathaniel Hawthorne.Ã¢â¬ Novels and Novelists : A Guide to the World of Fiction. Ed. Martin Seymour-Smith. London : Shuckburgh Reynolds Ltd., 1980, 154-155. Wagenknecht, Edward. Ã¢â¬Å"Nathaniel Hawthorne.Ã¢â¬ Cavalcade of the American Novel. New York : Henry Holt and Company, 1952, 90, 9, 20, 25, 38-57. Walker, Ronald G. Ã¢â¬Å"Nathaniel Hawthorne.Ã¢â¬ Critical Survey of Long Fiction. Vol. 4. Englewood Cliffs : Salem Press, 1983, 1314-1328. Van Doren, Carl. Ã¢â¬Å"Nathaniel Hawthorne.Ã¢â¬ The American Novel. Ed. Revised. Vol. 1789-1939. New York : The MacmillianCompany, 1966, 58-83 135-137, 210, 213, 215. Ã¢â¬Å"American Transcendentalism.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"PAL : Nathaniel Hawthorne.Ã¢â¬
Monday, November 11, 2019
Log on to the University of Phoenix eCampus web page located at: https://ecampus. phoenix. edu/portal/portal/public/login. aspx. Explore the resources available on the site and use them to answer the following questions. WRITING RESOURCES 1. Which three reviewing services are available to students through the Center for Writing Excellence? The plagiarism checker, the tutor review, and write point corrections. 2. Which resource in the Tutorials & Guides section of the Center for Writing Excellence offers tips about how to format a paper? The APA information section publication manual. 3. What are the University of PhoenixÃ¢â¬â¢s suggested resources for academic writing formatting and grammar guides? (Hint: This information is located in the Center for Writing Excellence) Plagiarism checker, tutor review, and write. UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 1. What are the three major article databases found in the University Library? EBSCO host, Thompson Gale Power Search, and Pro Quest. 2. Name three specialized article databases in the University Library. Business Insights, Economist. om, and Journal of Leadership Studies. 3. What link would you click to ask a question of the University of Phoenix Librarian? Ask a Librarian. COURSE INFORMATION 1. From your student Web site, how do you access your reading assignments for this course? Materials tab. 2. What chapter from the text Keys to College Studying is part of the reading assignment for Week Four of this course? Chapter 8 3. Where on your student Web site will you be able to find you r schedule and course grades for all courses completed to date? Under program tab and then Schedule and Grades. LEARNING TEAMS 1. What six documents are contained in the Ã¢â¬Å"Toolkit EssentialsÃ¢â¬ section of the Learning Team Toolkit? The learning team handbook, the online campus learning team handbook, guide to completing the University of Phoenix learning team charter, the learning team log, team evaluation, and team charter. 2. According to the Learning Team Toolkit section, Ã¢â¬Å"Why Learning Teams? Ã¢â¬ what are the four essential functions filled by Learning Teams that are especially beneficial to working adult learners? To create a team learning environment that students can share their knowledge from their personal environments and experiences, create the best possible quality with shared assignments by getting the most out of the group, offer support while providing help with life other demands, and help students obtain and use knowledge learn. STUDENT SERVICES 1. What is the phone number for University of Phoenix technical support? (Hint: Use the Ã¢â¬Å"HelpÃ¢â¬ button in the top right corner of the page. ) 1. 877. 832. 4867 2. Where can you find information about who to contact for questions regarding student disabilities? The University Disability Services section. 3. What three National Testing Programs does the University of Phoenix award credit for? College Level Examination Program, Defense Activities for Non-Traditional Education Support, and the Excelsior College Examinations. 4. Name one form of misconduct in the Student Code of Conduct. (Hint: The Student Code of Conduct is located in the Academic Catalog). Using or being under the influence of alcohol or illegal drugs while in class, at campus-sanctioned events, or when meeting with campus personnel.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
To answer the aforementioned questions, the paper primarily employs a qualitative approach, although a degree of quantitative data will also be utilized. From a qualitative perspective, the paper will draw heavily on case studies and historical and contemporary examples in order to take a comparative approach in explaining and identifying the effect that refugees have on the nations that receive them. Particularly, the case study approach and the identification of the relevance to the current crisis in Lebanon and Jordan will allow for the exploration of why specific positive or negative effects may be magnified in some cases and not others. Solely focusing on discussions of this issue can cause the reader to be bogged down by generalities that, although often making intuitive sense, lack historical evidence. For example, those who might argue that an influx of refugees has a negative effect on host countries might say Ã¢â¬Å"refugees cause overcrowding in the host country.Ã¢â¬ While this explanation may be intuitive, it is also simplistic. I hope to examine past case studies and research in order to bridge the gap between generality and reality in order to qualitatively explain; if this is a valid point on the negative side of the argument the manner in which overcrowding manifests itself, how that affects the broader economy, whether that argument has relevance for the Lebanese case, and the potential implications for policy. These conceptual, qualitative explanations will also require a degree of quantitative backing as well. As the paper is discussing economic impact, quantitative metrics for example, GDP figures, money spent on infrastructure development, wage data, and employment data will be employed to give more clarity and evidence to conceptual claims. This quantitative componentÃ¢â¬âalthough not at the level of sophistication of regression analysis and not primary data in natureÃ¢â¬âwill be useful in both the historical and contemporary parts of the paperLiterature reviewThe modern world is one of constant change and upheaval. For many in the Global North, this change is characterized by dramatic advances in technology and progressive policy reforms. But for still many more, the story is a markedly different tale of survival. Today, the world is confronting its worst refugee crisis since World War II. Facing political turmoil, violence, and war, over 60 million people have fled their homes in search of safety and with hope for a better future (Graham 2015). As these refugees pour over the borders of Iraq and Syria, pile onto smuggling boats in Libya and Burma, and flee to neighboring lands from Yemen and Somalia, they have captured the world's attention. Currently, much of the popular and academic discourse has addressed the moral and humanitarian components of refugee crises. Accordingly, whether due to mounting international awareness and pressure or humanitarian compassion; many developed regions, such as the United States and the European Union, have boosted their capacity to receive refugees. The human rights element inherent to refugee crises is relatively more clear-cut. But a broader academic discussion has been developing around the following question: what are some of the economic effects; both positive and negative, of the sudden influx of refugees on host countries? These economic questions are particularly important to a country like Lebanon, where Syrian refugees now make up over 20 percent of the population (Richard, 2014). Before these effects can be analyzed, it is important to distinguish refugees from other types of migrants. The United Nations, via the 1951 Refugee Convention, defines a refugee as someone who Ã¢â¬Å"owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country. The key point here is movement out of fear and necessity, rather than, say, economic opportunity. This definition has also been expanded by many to include violence and war, famine, and natural disaster. Scholars have further delineated the difference between refugees and migrants by looking at size of the group and nation of origin. In particular, refugees are noted for typically moving as a part of a larger group of people rather than as individuals; they also generally come from relatively less developed economies. With these definitions in mind, the paper now turns to examining the economic impact that refugees have on host countries. Positive economic impacts Refugees can often bring positive economic impacts to the countries that receive them. The existing literature discusses a number of ways in which this can occur, five of which are discussed below. First, provisions designed and implemented explicitly for refugees can often lead to broader utilization by the host country's population. Specifically, schools built explicitly for refugee children have served local students, who might not otherwise go to school at all as well. The presence of refugees ensures enrollment stability, thereby helping to keep the schools open and functioning for all children; this in turn encourages continued investment and can improve the educational infrastructure of the country and boost long-term economic productivity. Aside from educational institutions, governments and international aid organizations may, because of the crisis, often invest in other infrastructure developments; such as medical clinics, housing developments, and roads to access refugee camps that can be maintained and used for the population at large when the refugee crisis subsides. These temporary structuresÃ¢â¬âoriginally built to support refugeesÃ¢â¬âcan persist beyond the crisis and bolster the host country's infrastructure and development prospects. In this sense, these short-term negative economic shocks that refugees provide to the system can give way to a longer-term positive economic outcome. Second, it is also important to consider the demographics of the refugees themselves.Many of the factors that drive refugee crises; especially war or terrorism, are relatively indiscriminate to class. Because of this, refugees can often come from skilled and educated backgrounds. ResultsMost studies of the effect of unskilled migration on the wages of unskilled workers find only small negative effects. The early literature on the subject typically concluded that a 1 percent increase in the immigrant share in the population causes no decline in wages or a decline of 0.1 percent. These area studies that attempted to exploit the variation in migration incidence across countries, or more typically across localities in Lebanon and Jordan. As is most clearly seen in developing countries receiving large numbers of refugees, such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey, the concentration of refugees in specific localities can Ã¢â¬Å"crowd outÃ¢â¬ public services such as schools and hospitals, or cause the transport infrastructure to become congested. In advanced countries, where the infrastructure is well developed and the refugee inflow is much smaller relative to the native populations, these effects can be observed in specific neighborhoods, typically in low-income areas.Mitigating these concentration effects while at the same time avoiding the temptation of encouraging refugees to settle in distant locations where it is difficult to find work and people do not want to stay poses a genuine challenge to policy-makers. At the same time, it is clear that unskilled migrants can reduce the price of many market services and also reduce the cost of many public services like unskilled migrants help cleaning streets An important benefit that natives; whether they are skilled or unskilled derive from unskilled refugees, and one that until recently was largely neglected, is that they help reduce the prices of non-traded goods and services that natives use intensively. Researchers have proved that the surge in immigration in the Jordan and Lebanon since 2011 may have reduced the prices of these services by about 10 percent. By contrast, as discussed further below, the arrival of refugees can put upward pressure on housing in localities where they are concentrated. This can make low-income housing less affordable even as it represents a net wealth gain for the native population that owns housing. Since many advanced countries, most notably in Europe, experience high and persistent unemployment over many years, even when growth is near or above long-term potential, the worry that increased immigration will simply make the structural or cyclical unemployment problem worse resonates widely. Consider an economy where collective bargaining predominates in some Ã¢â¬Å"rigidÃ¢â¬ sectors and where the labor market is very flexible in others. They find that migration can increase unemployment in the rigid sector, while having a relatively small negative effect on wages in the rigid sector, and reduce the wage in the flexible sector where unemployment remains low by definition. In the long run, these effects tend to dissipate as investment responds. Thus, the model that assumes perfect labor markets tends to overestimate the impact of migration on average wages and to underestimate the effect on unemployment; meta-analysis of studies examining the effect of immigration on unemployment in developed countries found out that in general, an increase in immigration by 1 percent of the population leads to an increase in unemployment of no more than 0.3 percent. In contrast, studies of the Lebanon and Jordan labor markets, which are among the most flexible, have found no significant effect of immigration on employment opportunities for native workers; including low-skilled native workers. They found that, among less-educated workers, those born in the two countries tend to have jobs in manufacturing or mining, while migrants tend to have jobs in personal services and agriculture, providing an explanation for why low-skilled migration has a limited impact on employment. In fact, the share of migrants among the less-educated is strongly correlated with the extent of Jordan born worker specialization in communication tasks. In states with a heavy concentration of less-educated migrants, Lebanon born workers have shifted toward more communication-intensive occupations. Those jobs pay higher wages than manual jobs, and so such a mechanism has stimulated the productivity of workers born in the two counties and generated new employment opportunities.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Kurdish Nationalism versus Turkish Nationalism Free Online Research Papers According to Sumerian inscriptions of 2000B.C and Assyrian inscriptions, Kardaka, Kurtie or Guti in the neighborhood of Lake Van are the ancestors of modern Kurds. The first the modern name of Ã¢â¬ËKurdÃ¢â¬ was seen in Arabic writings of ninth century A.D with the plural from of Ã¢â¬ËAkadÃ¢â¬â¢. Kurdish territory had been invaded by different civilizations like Caucasian, pre-Iranian and around 700 B.C Iranian elements were effective, and Kurds had been in struggle with them to protect their territorial unity. Ã¢â¬Å"The modern Kurds are therefore descendants of several ancient peoples, mainly Iranian. They include Caucasian strains in the north and some Semitic strains in the south. They are, however, bound together, by a purely Kurdish influence which probably derives from the original mountain tribes which have inhabited these regions from earliest timesÃ¢â¬ (The Kurdish Question, W.G Elphinston, International Affairs(royal of International affairs 1994-), Vol.22,No.1(Jan,1946), Pg.92). In the seventh century, by the influence of the Islam in the southern part of Kurdish Mountains, Kurdish families began following their ancestry to early Arab heroes. They began working in the Arab armies as levies during Omayyad and Abbasid Caliphates terms. Until Kurdistan was a big conflict between the Turks and the Safavi dynasty of Iran, it had been ruled by different dynasties, Hassanawaih, during 959 to 979 A.D, Khorremabad and Sarmaj. Before the invasion of the Seljuk Turks, Diyarbakir and Urfa were ruled by Marwanids. However, without any sovereigns but different group of dynasties were not able to sustain Kurdish unity and Western part of Kurdistan became part of the Ottoman Empire and Eastern part became part of Iran. According to Adam Smith, there is two different ways of nationhood which take their origins from ethnie or ethnic community. According to him, Human beings have multiple identities. Thus, in prehistoric areas, the family, clan and settlement competed for their loyalty. He defines ethnie Ã¢â¬Å"communities that not only share certain myths of origin and descent, the association with a certain territory and at least some common elements of culture, but also a sense of solidarity among (most of) their members.Ã¢â¬ (The Kurds, Pg.32). This explanation shows the difference between ethnic category, people share common culture and a myth but lack of solidarity, and ethnic community. Nation is the place which every feature assembles; public culture and a certain political and economical integration. He does not believe that culture is constructed or given and fixed. He does believe that culture Ã¢â¬Å"whole set of representations and principles that consciously organize the various aspec ts of social life, a set of norms, positive and negative, and the values attached to these ways of acting and thinkingÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds, Pg.81). He examines ethnie in two groups; lateral-aristocratic ethnie, Ã¢â¬Å"whose members constitute a military-aristocratic stratum, which has little social depth but may be widely extended in geographical space.Ã¢â¬ (The Kurds, Pg.33) , and vertical- demotic type; Ã¢â¬Å"different social strata share in (more or less) the same culture and are held together by a belief in common origins and a strong commitment to a common religionÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds, Pg.33). If there is a cultural integration between different communities that they dominate, lateral aristocratic ethnies can grow. On the other hand, for vertical one, there should be a process that integration is created by nationalist intelligentsia. Reinvention of ethnic past and claim of sacred ties to a homeland can appear in the earlier nation states but also it can be inside and against them. To accept the other individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ ethnic identity means that being aware of their different but common language and following similar cultures and princinbles. However, this reorganization will not prevent the war because ethnicity does not provide certain kind of guarantee to territorial access or material wealth. Certain kinds of marriages do not either. Ã¢â¬Å"It is the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s membership in a local solidarity group, tribe, clan or household that will, up to a point, ensure that s/he has access to these three advantagesÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds, Pg.87). Dominant ethnie or religion group or tribe is the head of the state or has the power of the state. Thus, being a member of a common ethnie also means that classifying in higher or lower positions according to their ethnicity and tribal membership in the bureaucratic hierarchy of the state. According to Fredrik Barth, people feel that have to belong to some ethnie because the sense of the security and stability in their boundaries. They have always wanted to maintain their order, in order to build, negotiate and reproduce its self-identity. Thus, Ã¢â¬Å"ethnicity results from the constantly renewed codification of cultural differences between neighboring groupsÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds, Pg.82). Therefore, different cultures create different ethnic boundaries. On the other hand, for modernist, ethnic groupings are flexible. It can be constructed, adopted, or rejected according to will. Individuals can have two different identities. Their identity does not depend on where they were born, but their role in a given society. Pure etnie cannot be possible for anybody else. Nobody can talk about oneÃ¢â¬â¢s pure ethnie, but populationÃ¢â¬â¢s origin. Circumstances are the defining factor for individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ ethnic identity. It is a matter of choice according to these circumstances. Therefore, ethnic identity does not belong to common kinship, religion or history. It is constructed by individuals. Benedict Anderson mentions that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ a historical identity contains imagined and imaginary fact that any claim to a h istorical identity contains imagined and imaginary elements, objects of dream and desires, always easily manipulated as the historical context evolves. The role of the intellectual elite in the creation of these movements is essential: they are the ones who first speak out specific markers or diferentia specifica in the culture and history of groupÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds, Pg. 86). Assimilation via education, forcing the dominant groupÃ¢â¬â¢s language to hide the ethnic communities for their nation building process or end the conflict between ethnies in the state are the ways to construct an ethnic identity for individuals. The question is that how Kurdish Nationalism occurred although they had different dynasties and approximately no unity between each other? Was that because of the modernization or primordial reasons or the balance of power? How come, their struggle sparkled and the big conflict began and has been escalating with Turkey and how this conflict has become a big question about ethnie in international arena, and will there be a solution for that conflict? Kurds had two aspects of society. One of them was primordial aspect; aga, sheikh, tribal leader as a traditional forms of power. Other one was modernist aspect; intellectuals, businessman, new leading groups among Kurds and merchants as a result of modern education and immigration. In the major cities of Kurdistan, there was an effect of Turkicized culture. In the shehri (urbanities) provided a distinct social group s of the vernacular rural groups. The tribesmen defined themselves as Ã¢â¬ËashiretÃ¢â¬â¢ (tribal) or as Kurds. Whereas, in the urban population, some of them referred themselves as Turkish others referred as Kurds. Religion, Ã¢â¬ËcommunalismÃ¢â¬â¢, was an important factor for Kurdish solidarity during their national building process. In modern times, Kurds emerged as Sunni Muslims with Sufi effect. Also there were many Kurdish ShiÃ¢â¬â¢ite communities with different ethnic identities and dialects like Zaza and Alevis. During the 19th century, religious separists movements in Ottoman Empire, Sunni Kurds were recruited by sultan Adul-Hamid. In WWI, they had religious identity. They struggled against Christian invaders, Allies and Greeks, with Ottoman Empire. Religious identity created strong ties between Turks and Kurds against communist Alevis. When the clashes took place between Turks and communist Alevis, to be a Kurd or a Turk was not an issue because the first identity was the religious one. Sunni Kurds supported the pan Turkish Nationalist Action Party and young Turkish speaking Alevis declared themselves to be Kurds. Some Sunni Kurdish shaykhs and intellectuals were the supporter of KemalÃ¢â¬â¢s pan-Islamic movement to protect the caliphate in the Turkish Muslim Empire. Ã¢â¬Å"Naqshbandiyya supporters of the Turkish independence movement, garnering financial support for the military, spreading the goals of Mustafa Kemal, and discrediting the Istanbul governmentÃ¢â¬ ( Denise Natali, The Kurds and the State, Evolving National Identity in Iraq, turkey, and Iran, Pg.76). in 1919, Erzurum congress, Kurds mentioned that they were the supporters of both Mustafa Kemal and Turkish liberation, as long as it was aware of the Kurdish autonomy. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Kurds were the legitimate brothers of the Turks and demanding not to separated from their compatriots, Kurds who demanded independence, claiming it was indignant to Kurdish honorÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds and the State, Evolving National Identity in Iraq, turkey, and Iran, Pg. 77). However, when tribesmen realized the modern developments, education and modern health services and intercommunication, at the same time they realized that their power was going to be getting weaker. Even though, tribesmen power was getting lesser, the concern about the race as a Kurd was getting stronger. Tribesmen were still expecting the new local chief Kurd or at least speak and understand Kurdish. According to Kurdish primordialistsÃ¢â¬â¢ believers, Kurdish language and people have existed for millennia, but Kurdistan was isolated because of the modernism. Thus, for those people, modernism was seen as a conflict rather than the solution for their conflict with Turks. Ã¢â¬Å"Said Nursi criticized the idea of nationalism and ethnicity as a poison, arguing: I refuse one hundred million times to sacrifice 350 million brothers among whom are absolute majority of Kurds, who have a certain fraternity and who assist me with their prayersÃ¢â¬ ¦to the idea of a negative ethnicity and nationalism. I refuse one hundred millions times to abandon these numerous sacred brothers, to win over some small impious numbers who have entered a profession without confession and who carry the name of KurdsÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds and the State, Pg.76). During Ottoman Empire, minority was defined by religion. MinoritiesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights were recognized. Their ethnic and linguistic differences among them did not have any legal consequences. The Kurdish National Movement began in 1826 because of sultan MahmutÃ¢â¬â¢s changing policy for local governors and it escalated after the Young Turk revolt and got worse in Mustafa KemalÃ¢â¬â¢s modernization term. In 19th century, Kurds realized their different cultural and linguistic features. In 1887, Midhat Bey and friends, generally well known families sons and had good background, published newspaper was called Kurdistan. Ã¢â¬Å"The paper, which violently attacked Turkish policy towards the Kurds, is said to have done much to consolidate the idea of Kurdish independence and to have led to the formation of Kurdish communities in various European countries, in Constantinople and in other Turkish townsÃ¢â¬ (The Kurdish Question, W.G Elphinston, International Affairs 1944-, Vol.22, No.1). Thus, this was the beginning of their revolt against Ottoman Empire; because nationalism was not well formed in those ages, their movement was religious (tariqats) rather than a nationalist movement. Sheikh Said, was the one of the most important religious revolt against Turks. And other revolts, trying to prove Kurdish independence, continued between 1930 and 1938. They were suppressed by Turkish military. Kurdish nationalist were apprehensive about cultural division because they needed a unity for self-determination. StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s definition about nation was a remedy for their action and self-determination process. According to Stalin, nation have to five main characteristics to be a nation; common history, language, territory, economic life and culture. From 1923 to 1938 Kurdish nationalism had been revolting against Turkish government for Kurdish language and its deep root. Ã¢â¬Å" Kurdish intellectual Nuri Dersimi wrote a letter to the secretary general of UN in the name of the tribes of Tunceli (Dersimi), warning about the Turkification of one part of the Kurdish nation and extermination of otherÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds and the State, Evolving National Identity in Iraq, turkey, and Iran, Pg. 83). By the early 20th century, Kurdish ethnie became defined Kurdish-speaking Muslim tribes like Zaza and Gurani speaking tribes. Sunnis, lived with them in similar ecological environments and shared common history became Kurdish core. Tribal peasantry groups like Alevi, Yezidi, ShiÃ¢â¬â¢I and Ahl-I hagg tribes, speaking same language and believing in same religion, became defined as Kurds. By the 1960s, Kurdish nationalist, had the elite backgrounds, Ã¢â¬Å"decided that the non-tribal peasantry were real Kurds and directed their nationalist propaganda at them. The subject peasantry were gradually incorporated into dominant ethnieÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds, pg.34). The question in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mind is that the reason of Kurdish nationalism can depend on the modernist approach. Was that really because of the unity of the Kurdish workers in three different areas, Turkey, Iraq and Iran, as Marxist ideology claim? Some primordialists believe that it was not the main reason because Kurdish workers united with other workers in their multiethnic states and plus the areas that Kurds survived never concentrated Kurdish communitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ industrialization process, Hence, they migrated to the west, Izmir, Istanbul and Germany, in 1960s because of their financial situation and support for their ideology but not for their nationalism movement. Ã¢â¬Å"The saliency of socioeconomic, tribal and localist identities prevented a unified sense of Kurdayeti (mobilization of Kurdish identity) from emerging across Kurdistan. Most Kurds were more interested in protecting their personal religious and tribal interests than in turning to Kurdish organizations to ad vance nationalist claimsÃ¢â¬ (Denise Natali, The Kurds and the State, Evolving National Identity in Iraq, turkey, and Iran, Pg:75). Thus, modernization does not have any relevancy with Kurdish nationalism and reason of conflict with Turkey. Beginning of the modernization area and by this way increasing of the nation states and the spread of the democratization process and importance of the human rights increased the awareness of nationalism ideas and escalates the domestic conflicts. Increase of the communication between all Kurdish groups improved the political expectations. Thus, as Earnest Gellner mentions that nationalism as a result of industrialization and the impact of the state and society of process. However, this modernization process and nationalism appeared in Kurdish community a little bit late. Because of their geographical position, as a nomadic life style, diversity isolated them in different places. This strengthened the different Kurdish dialects. Ã¢â¬Å"Isolation and pastoral way of life in many areas contributed to the development of a strong clan and tribal structure that perpetuated political and regional divisionÃ¢â¬ (TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s Kurdish Question, Henri J. Barkey and Graham E. Fuller, Pg.6 ). Another reason for the delay of the Kurdish nationalism was that their division between Persian and Ottoman empires and so divergency of national views. Increase of the nationalism ideas caused the clash of states and awakening the transformation of dominant states. Because of the emergence of the nationalism, conflict escalated between the great powers. During the WW I, first Kurdish nationalism emerged in Turkey. The decline of Ottoman Empire gave the huge change for the Emergence of the idea of self-determination so, Kurdish nationalism. Lenism with Bolshevik Revolution and Wilson with American Liberation inspired Kurdish nationalism and their demand for their independence. Thus, it is unavoidable the importance of the modernization over the spread of Kurdish Nationalism and the struggle with Turks. Late 19th century, Kurdish nationalism became more effective because of the increase of modernizing states and nationalism among the majority peoples who dominated them, Turks, Iranian and Arabs. Turkey was the under the pressure of Western powers during the 18th century and was preparing to its end. During this transformation term, K urdish people had a chance to express their ethnic identity, participate the political affairs, speak their own language, and assemble as a national group. Western power pressure over Ottomans but their friendship with Kurdistan assembles Kurds under their umbrella. Kurds were supported by British society; Friends of British society and Committee for the Independence for the Independence of Kurdistan. Bedir Khan, a representative in the Ottoman Parliament and secretary of the Committee for the Independence of Kurdistan, complained about Kurdish nationalismÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult situation in Turkey and its difference from Turkish national identity to British Society; Ã¢â¬Å"We have nothing in common with the Turks. They are of the Turanian race; we are of the Aryan race. Pour language is different. The Turks speak a language composed of Chagatay, Arab, and Persian, while Kurds speak their own language with its origins from Pahlavi (The Kurds and the State, Pg.74). Nation building policies of Turkey, improved communications, mass education and mass literacy, increased geographical and social mobility, political an military struggle of Kurdish nationalist parties, the ruin of traditional village life and the emergence of highly educated middle class have been such a profound effect over Kurdish nationalism movement during 20th century. However, this changes do not only have a positive effect over their nationalism but integration economically and socially to big cities caused weakening of Kurdish ethnicity too. In Urfa in 1960, Said Nursi, who identified as a Sunni Muslim, mentioned: Ã¢â¬Å"I have a friendly and brotherly relation with true the TurksÃ¢â¬ ¦.. Yet, you take the identity from millions of Kurds who are real Turkish citizens, brothers in combat in the holy war of the Turks. You make them forget their identity and their ancient languageÃ¢â¬ ¦ This is a barbaric procedure. This submission cannot be imposed on me and we will not sub mitÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds and the States, Evolving National Identity in Iraq, Turkey and Iran, Pg.96). For sharpening the ethnic boundary with the dominant ethnie and awakening the Kurdish nationalism, Kurdish intellectuals has been studying historiography, linguistics, folklore studies and most of all poetry and literature. Some secularized and urbanized Kurdish intellectuals such as Mehdi Zana and Musa Anter published journals in Kurdish and Turkish and showing the significance of the Kurdish ethnicity by proving the difference of Kurdish language. Until the 1960s and 70s, Kurdish identity was undermined as state based national identity. 1960s was the awakening and reemergence of Kurdish nationalism. Displacement policy in new areas like western Anatolia and also Germany, and by this way, attending new jobs such as seasonal workers or some construction sectors and automobile factories, Kurdish nationalism assembled around the leftist worker groups. As a reborn left movement, it was for recognition of the existence of Kurds, their cultural rights and economic development. In 1965, Kurdistan Democratic Party of Turkey, emphasized the Kurdish identity and economic development but not the religion, was established by Faik Bucak and Said Elci. The new Kurdish movement became stronger with mass education and urbanization process. Kurdish students, intellectuals and labor immigrants became aware of their difference from dominant ethnie. Ã¢â¬Å"During the dozens of meetings held by Kurdish and Turkish intellectuals and working classes during 1960s, the participants protested against the underdevelopment of southeast Turkey. They demanded teachers and schools and not police. Kurdish nationalist also criticized education without the Kurdish language and life in Kurdistan without water and foodÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds and the States, Evolving National Identity in Iraq, Turkey and Iran, Pg.100). In 1969, as another modernist approach, in the Eastern Turkey, new Kurdish organi zations were established to mention the importance of the Kurdish nationalism. Devrimci Dogu Kultur Ocaklaris was one of them. These organizations published journals and newspapers in Turkish and Kurdish to emphasize the Ã¢â¬Å"eastern problemÃ¢â¬ . During 1970s, when Kurdish agas became loosing power, Kurdish Leftist groups cooperated with Turkish Leftist parties to get some support for their movement. Others, who were against leftist groups and Alevis, joint the right wing Turkish parties like Alparslan TurkesÃ¢â¬â¢s MHP. However, after the 1970 coup dÃ¢â¬â¢etat and so weakening leftist workers group caused the declining of Kurdish nationalism. Their right wing Kurds became closer to Turkish government and reached and agreement with it increased the KurdÃ¢â¬â¢s claim for their distinct ethnic identity. Thus, the hatred against the Turks and right wing Kurds escalated. Ã¢â¬Å"In the highly ethnicized and militarized political space, and in the absence of open political alternatives, Kurdish nationalist sentiment and organizations became highly ethnicized, violent, and diversified. Urbanized Kurdish nationalists produced clandestine journals such as MEDYA Gunesi, Toplumsal Dirilis, Ozgur Gelecek, and Vatan Gunesi that criticized the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s military warfare in Kurdistan and emphasized the distinct Kurdish language. Still prevented from using in term Kurd, they created secular, pro-Kurdish parties, including the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Labor Party (Halkin Emek Partisi (HEP)Ã¢â¬ (The Kurds and the S tates, Evolving National Identity in Iraq, Turkey and Iran, Pg.110). Also, some of illegal parties like the socialist Party of Kurdistan in Turkey, the Kurdistan WorkersÃ¢â¬â¢ Vanguard Party, and the Liberty Party was established with the slogan of Ã¢â¬Å"Kurdara AzadiÃ¢â¬ (Freedom to Kurds). Beside these parties, some nationalistic ones like National Liberators of Kurdistan and the Kurdistan WorkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Party took violent nationalist actions Turkish government. PKK, terrorist organization, was represented as a least assimilated group in Kurdistan. Abdullah Ocalan, in 1972, became a president of this terrorist organization. They made an agreement with Syrian terrorist organization as well as the Palestinian one to increase their violent attack. This is a mainly leftist students group in Ankara, and grew out of anarchy. In 1985, they created National Liberation Front of Kurdistan (ERNK). By this organization, they had a chance to recruit leftist students, provide intelligence and spread their propaganda activities in Turkey as well as abroad. In 1986, PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Liberation Army of Kurdistan was established to pursue the same aims with ERNK. Their aim was that create independent Kurdish state which was against to Western imperialism and of course the Turkish one. This Marxist-Lennist organization aimed to show that it was a Ã¢â¬Ënational liberationÃ¢â¬â¢ organization, organizing congress and taking decisions democratically, against t he Turkish nationalist movement. They tried to establish socialist state by aggressive military and nationalistic movement. Ocalan stated: Ã¢â¬Å"I did not emphasize Kurdayeti along with other Leftist during the 1960s-1970s because the extreme left was very strong and the Kurds lost their confidence. Also, there was a no dictatorship in Turkey during this time. We created PKK in 1978 at the time of the massacres in Karamaras. Still it was not a party uniquely for the Kurds or for Kurdayeti. It was an idea of the socialistsÃ¢â¬ ¦ our route to revolution was socialismÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds and the State, Evolving National Identity in Iraq, Turkey and Iran, Pg.112). The recruitment by PKK increased really fast against Turkish government. Growing number of Kurds increased their propaganda in the streets in 1990. Ã¢â¬Å"mass demonstrations, together with strikes and subsequent unrest, racked the frontier towns of Nusaybin and Cizre, with the disaffection spreading to regional city of Diyarb akir, The protests were ominously labeled the beginning of a Kurdish intifada by members of the Kurdish nationalist movementÃ¢â¬ (The Overload State: Turkish Policy and the Kurdish Issue, Phillip Robins, International Affairs, Vol.69, No.4, Oct.1993, Pg. 665). To reach their goals they also killed Kurdish people, village guards. In 1985, ANAP (Anavatan Partisi, Motherland Party) was under the control of Turgur Ozal decided to use village guards in South-east, to protect the order in that region against PKK. Ã¢â¬Å"The creation of these groups would also serve the purpose of showing outsiders that the Kurds in the south-east were far from united in their opposition to the Turkish states. The village Guard system soon became embroiled in the tribalism of the region. With the PKK using violence as an instrument of terror against members of the militia and their families, those attracted to membership of the Village guard have often been clans who are traditionally loyal to stateÃ¢â ¬ (Turkey and Kurds, Pg.664). PKK believed that these guards were also big impediments for them to create unified and independent Kurdistan. Since, these village guards were working with Turkish government and taking money from it, they had to be killed or that had to become PKK members and supply money for that terrorist organization. This forceful PKK pressure over the village guards, created tension in local areas, and PKK took advantage of this division between the local guards and exploited some exiting tribal divisions. In 1990, Ocalan established Patriotic Union of Mullahs of Kurdistan, the Islamic party of Kurdistan, and the Kurdish-Alevi Union to declare jihad against Turkish government. Basically he used religion as a tool for their violent nationalistic action. Ã¢â¬Å"Kurdish nationalists, in turn, have sporadically used religion to advance their nationalist agenda. After 1990 some Kurds in Turkey reconfigured Kurdish Liberation in the context of Islam as a way of coun tering the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s Islamic policies. Ocalan declared the PKK more Islamic than the Islamists and said that he too, prayed during his youthÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds and the State, Evolving National Identity in Iraq, Turkey and Iran, Pg.115). To attract the attention of public opinion and gain international and local respect, between 1991 and 1993, their actions became more lethal. They had attacked government institutions, schools, teachers, and political parties in the East and South East. According to Amnesty International, as of 1997, 124 teachers were killed by members of the PKK. Ã¢â¬Å"PKK members abducted and killed 19 teachers in the autumn of 1994; it appears that the Kurdish Workers Party, PKK, is resuming its repugnant policy of murdering teachers in southeast Turkey(www.amnesty.org). In 1993, Abdullah Ocalan declared ceasefire unilaterally. Howeer, it was not such a long ceasefire because then he suddenly broke the ceasefire and appeasement term with Turkish goverment. Ã¢â¬Å"Ocalan put forward two reasons for his return to arms: the absence of any political gestures, such as allowing Kurdish Language radio and television broadcast; and the fact that military action had been resumed by the governmentÃ¢â¬ ( The Overload State: Turkish Policy and the Kurdish Issue, Pg.669). However, it was not realistic that, because he declared ceasefire, it did not mean for Turkish government, Turkey could trust PKK and help the Kurdish development process. And also although during the ceasefire period, Turkish military was in the South East , they were not such a big threat for Kurds. To cover its terrorist facets, PKK created the Kurdish Parliament in Exile. Ã¢â¬Å"To establish national institutions in cultural fields, to establish a national congress and national parliament of a free Kurdistan, to prepare draft resolutions relating to a constitution, citizenship laws, conscription laws, civil laws, tax laws, penal laws and environmental protection act, to work with youth to put an end to its alienation, to ease the return of the Kurdish people to Kurdistan, to enter into voluntary agreements with the neighboring peoples, guided by the principle of self Ã¢â¬âdetermination of Kurds, to undertake to improve the Kurdish LanguageÃ¢â¬ (TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s Kurdish Question, Pg34-35), this organization was created. However, even though they wanted to reach a so-called compromise with Turkish government, the demanded also military, economic and political embargo from international community. On the other hand, Some Kurdish people attended to Turkish parties, to seek solutions for the South East problem. These parliamentarians tried to find projects and tried to help the Kurdish people in that area. Also, they had a chance to protect their family against PKK. These Kurdish parliamentarians became closer the Turkish government not only because of their security concern or earn money but also they began believing that Because of PKKÃ¢â¬â¢s violent actions, Kurdish people having less political freedom than before. In south east, Kurds stopped their demonstrations, closed their shops and stooped their strikes. Thus, in this area, right now, two different types of village guards, one of them was forced by PKK to be a member of this terrorist organization and revolt against Turks, and other one was totally against PKK and struggled with them. Because of this tribal division and PKKÃ¢â¬â¢s propaganda; Ã¢â¬Å"all those that are not with us are against usÃ¢â¬ , Kurds unfort unately did not have a chance which one really against PKK which one was forced and which one the real PKK member. Additionally, besides these parliamentarians, against PKK, Kurdish right-wing religionist occurred like Hezbollah. They killed lots of PKK intellectuals and journalists. Beginning of the War of the Independence, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, first president of Turkey, mentioned the equality of Turks and Kurds and their common struggle to protect the millet (nation) in April 1920. Also, Mustafa Kemal mentioned that, Parliament was not the arrange of representatives of Turks, Kurds and Laz but the representative of the Islamic community. Unfortunately, Kurds revolt against Turks continued. In 1920, Koagari was the most important one. This revolt, forced Ataturk to gather Turkish troops against Kurds from the real war arena to deal with that insurgency which later led to big gap between Kurds and Turks. 1920 was an important year not only for Turks but also Kurds because they had a chance to persuade Turkish government for their distinct ethnicity with the Treaty of Sevres. According to that agreement; Ã¢â¬Å"If within one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty the Kurdish peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦ show that majority of the population of these areas desire s independence from Turkey, and if the Council then considers that these people are capable of such independence and recommendation, and to renounce all rights and title over these areasÃ¢â¬ (Turkey and Kurds, Pg.659). If Turkey had not won the Turkish War of independence, today talking about Turkish existence would be so difficult. By that victory, treaty of Lausanne was signed, and that treaty determined the minority according to religion but not ethnie. Ã¢â¬Å"No reference was made to non-Turkish minorities, though there were some very general provisions on the rights of Turkish nationals. This effective exclusion of the Kurds from definition of a minority has been referred to countless times by Turkish politicians to justify the lack of any special status or provisions for the Kurds of TurkeyÃ¢â¬ (Turkey and Kurds, Pg. 660). During the Lausanne Conference, Ismet Inonu Mentioned that. That was not true that Kurds did not want to live with Turks. For centuries, Turk and Kurd s had been sharing same culture, tradition, ethnie and living in harmony. Kurds preffered Turkish governance by their will and decided to have same destiny with Turks. Ã¢â¬Å"In Turkish Grand Assembly, they have their own, mayors and representatives and so this assembly is not only for Turks but also as well as its Kurds. They have the same rights with Turkish mayors to talk about stateÃ¢â¬â¢s futureÃ¢â¬ (Lozan Baris Konferansi,Tutanaklar-Belgeler, 3.Baski, 2001, Pg. 349). During the one party area in Turkey, Kemalist regime reinvented the Turkish ethnie. Actually, during that term, not Kurdish and Turkish nationalism was in conflict but the primordialism and modernism were struggling against each other and were used by Turks and Kurds to unify their nations according to their interests. In 1925, Ismet Inonu, AtaturkÃ¢â¬â¢s confidant and successor, in his speech proved the effect of primordialism in Turkish domestic policy; Ã¢â¬Å"We are frankly nationalist and nationalism is our only factor of cohesion. In the face of a Turkish majority other elements have no kind of influence. We must Turkify the inhabitants of our land at any price, and we will annihilate those oppose the TurksÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s Kurdish Question, Pg.10). In 1924, demolish of Caliphate and reduce the importance of religion as defining factor for identity, idea of citizenship was shaped in Turkey. Citizenship meant that Turkishness. Ã¢â¬Å"Mustafa Kemal had begun to de velop an ideology based on ethno-nationalsim, drawn from the European experience. The essence of this ideology to which Mustafa Kemal gave his name as it related to the national question was that those disparate people of the modern state were to have their previous identities subsumed under that of being TurkishÃ¢â¬ ¦Kurds by categorizing them as Ã¢â¬ËMountain KurdsÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¦ and their traditional costumes wee banned because of the Turkish Dress Code, village names got Turkish names and various restrictions on the use of the Kurdish language were introducedÃ¢â¬ (Turkey and Kurds, Pg.661). Kurd could be called Turk, if they rejected their own ethnic identity. Also, if Kurds wanted to be a member of the parliament they had to accept the Turkish identity. This situation caused Kurdish dissatisfaction. Shaykh Said, first religious and nationalistic rebellion, changed the relationship between Kurds and Turks. Kemalist government believed that if never government was establish ed, there would be no homogeneity. Therefore, Kurds were not able to use their language and live their culture. As a result, some of them accepted Turkish identity and got some important positions in military, politics like President Turgut Ozal whose Grandmother was Kurd. Turkish nationalist idea was both civic and ethno-cultural. Its ethno-cultural aspect prepared a base for assimilation of Kurds, did not accept the higher Turkish culture, and civic one made possible the rise of assimilated Kurds. These assimilation process were as a result of some limitations such as education, economic resources. For instance as aresult of assimilation process by language, Ziya Gokalp, who was originally Kurd, opted Turkish ethnicity and became one of the Chief ideologies of Turkish nationalism. In 1915, he mentioned that shehrinin millleti yoktur wich means that the urbanite has no ethnic identityÃ¢â¬ (The Kurds, Pg.31). Currently in the Southeast some Kurdish people are barely speak any language but Kurdish. During the Democratic Party area, Turkish stated reduced their secular aspect and ease some cultural restrictions in the east. Kurdish people had a chance to benefit form commercial bourgeoisie even though it was in the west side of Turkey. Also they had a chance to express themselves in their own language because of the Freedom of expression. However, after that freedom of expression period, Democratic Part was overthrown. In 1960s, emergence of the trade unions and student groups, new political organizations were created for Kurds like Turkish workers party (TIP). It mentioned that there was an ethnic problem in Turkey. After that in 1971, because of the coup, this party was closed. In 1980s, Turkish government was afraid of growing trend of Kurdish nationalism and their strike in Southeast, so coup dÃ¢â¬â¢etat was happened. In the short term struggle with these terrorist were seen successful; lots of Kurdish nationalist were jailed or killed, but in the long run, it showed that this struggle did not bring success to Turks because some of the Kurdish nationalists escaped some underground or refuge boards. For instance, for PKK, Syria became a safe heaven. 1983 was another turning point both for Kurds and Turks because Turkish was declared as an only language for its citizens. However, in 1991, with Turgut Ozal, Kurdish people had their own publications in their own language and also had their own cultural organizations. These organizations aim were to teach Kurdish history and culture. According to Turkish public, although Turkey has three important features; Democratic process and governance, the existence of a large and vibrant civil society and open press, these feature do not work in the same way for Kurdish people and Kurdish problem. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s labor party (HEP), Democracy Party (DEP) and PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Democracy Party (HADEP), PKK affiliated parties, were banned. However, some civil organizations did not have the same strict ideas against Kurdish problem and also Turkish government has not been always ignorant. . Since the economic problem, which has been such a big deal and the reason of the conflict fro 1980, Ã¢â¬Å"Turkish government has recognized the centrality of the economic issue to Kurdish unrest. The South-east Anatolian Project (GAP) is aimed at regenerating the economy of the south-east. Countless other plans for rapid economic transformation have also been unveiledÃ¢â¬ (Turkey and Kurds, Pg. 663). As it is known that Southeast is the po orest area of Turkey and it has been run on a semi-feudal basis. People did not have enough economic development. And although there has been such a big economic growth in Aegean and Mediterranean, in southeast, per capita has been at the lowest rate. Also, during OzalÃ¢â¬â¢s term, Ã¢â¬Å"the government introduced a state of emergency, though falling short of martial law, effectively curbed he application of TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s emerging political liberalization process in the regionÃ¢â¬ (Turkey and Kurds, Pg. 664). The New Democracy Movement (Yeni Demokrasi Harekati), was established Cem Boyner, is a businessman and former head of TUSIAD (Turkish BusinessmenÃ¢â¬â¢s Association), tried to find a solution for the big economic gap between Southeast and West of Turkey by including Kurds to develop their own local policies along their own forms. He has succeeded to open an arena to answer the problems of Kurdish questions for future. Also, Turkish government showed some progresses for other areas to improve Kurdish peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ life standard like language; Ã¢â¬Å" since 2002, as part of its reforms aimed at European Union integration and under pressure to further the rights of Kurds, Turkey passed laws allowing Kurdish radio and television broadcasts as well the option of private Kurdish educationÃ¢â¬ (www.bbc.co.uk). On the other hand, lots of Kurdish families did not let their girls so to school because they thought that girls had to stay home and married rich husband. Unfortunately, families had the same tribal and traditional families for their girls. Their girls were only able to go to elementary and middle school. However, Ã¢â¬Å"The Turkish state is actively trying to put an end to these feudal practices by a variety of educational and political campaigns, along with nation-wide television campaigns and the personal involvement of the prime minister. It has been estimated that thanks to these determined campaigns, hundreds of thousands of girls in the region are now going to school for the very first timeÃ¢â¬ (www.britannica.com). However, although there are some progresses like that some of the, unfortunately are not satisfying. According to European Commission progress report As regards cultural rights, permission was granted to two local TV channels in Diyarbakir and to one radio in Sanliurfa to broadcast in Kurdish. However, time restrictions apply, with the exception of films and music programmes. All broadcasts, except songs, must be subtitled or translated in Turkish, which makes live broadcasts technically cumbersome. Educational programs teaching the Kurdish language are not allowed. The Turkish Public Television (TRT) has continued broadcasting five languages including Kurdish, however the duration and scope of TRTs national broadcasts in five languages is very limited. No private broadcaster at national level has applied for broadcasting in languages other than Turkish since the enactment of the 2004 legislat ionÃ¢â¬ . However, general public opinion has been really aggressive against Kurdish problem. Most of people believe that Kurd means that terrorist or problem. All Kurds are Terrorists and members of PKK. May be it is the because of the Ã¢â¬Å"Many Families have now lost their sons in the army to the conflict, and many parents speak with great anxiety about their sonsÃ¢â¬â¢ early due dates for military service and the risks entail. Bodies have been coming back from the southeast on a regular basis; and the height of the insurrection, the number of coffins brought to the main Kocatepe Mosque in Ankara for funeral ceremonies before being sent back home would sometimes reach ten a dayÃ¢â¬ (TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s Kurdish Question, Pg.116). For general public, Kurds are mountain Turks. Although they speak different language, their language based on Turkish, it is a dialect of Turkish. Thus it is not such a serious tool for communication and so it is ridiculous to demand for special linguistic rights . It means that Kurdish identity is meaningless and unnecessary and if somebody is dare to talk about their rights, this person is terrorist and enemy of the nation. Is there any solution for Kurdish and Turkish conflict? Are they going to live in the same territory as enemies or going to reach a compromise? Is there any trust between each other after their complicated history? Did primordialism and modernism help them for their national building or did they cause more conflict between each other? Both of them used both nationalistic ways in different period to build their nation. However, they have never ever exactly reached an agreement with each other. Maybe these approaches were as tools to damage each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s nation building process. First of all both Kurds and Turks lost their trust to each other. Ã¢â¬Å"Turks and Kurds are coming to live in their separate psychological worlds- working jointly in society but increasingly nourishing suspicious about each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions and identifying with different things. It is this growing psychological gap between Kurdish and Turkish is the most dangerous feature of Kurdish issue in Tur keyÃ¢â¬ (TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s Kurdish Question, Pg.17). Russian help to Kurds and also Britain cause a question mark in minds. Why did those nations help Kurds? Was that really because of to protect of their rights or to use them as a tool and reach their aim over Turkey? Then, can we say that balance of power escalate the conflict between Kurds and Turks? Why have these nations become a financial support for PKK and Kurds? Still people have suspicion about the future of this conflict. Both Kurds and Turks do not really do not know who they can trust. Do they trust each other or European powers to solve this problem? Is it really true that if Turkey increases its progress in the South-east and give more opportunities to Kurds such as they have more freedom about using their language, foreign powers, using Kurds for their geopolitics aim over Turkey, will able to Separate Turkey and give Kurds little federation under their control? These questions have not been answered yet, but confl ict between Kurds and Turks has been still escalating. And both sides become more pessimistic about their future because of their past. 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Monday, November 4, 2019
United Kingdoms response to the Threat of climate change - Essay Example Some nations like the United States, have refused to plunge into binding commitments to minimize their greenhouse gas emissions in the absence of action by developing nations. Together, it is viewed that the developing countries' growth of demand for energy is a considerable driver of increasing strain on the global energy markets. Climate change: Why all the fuss We now see the glaring and the very intense effects of climate change (IPCC, 2001). Accumulated from many weather stations world wide, measurements back up the scenario of a warming planet. On an average of 0.7C, the planet has warmed since 1900 (Figure 1.1), and all of the ten warmest years recorded took place since 1994. Notably, 20th century's tempo and magnitude of global warming has been unparalleled in the past 1,000 years (International Ad Hoc Detention Group, 2005, pp. 129-1314). The speed in the rise of sea level has been picking up, doubling to 2 mm annually over the past one hundred fifty years (Miller, Kominz, Browning et al, 2005, pp.1293-1298). Showing sources of all greenhouse gases in 2000 - CO2 equivalent. Portions without label are industrial processes (World Resources Institute) Drivers of climate change Greenhouse gas emissions have been considered as the major cause for climate change in the past fifty years. Likewise, the discharge of carbon dioxide from burning fossils fuel has increased from 6 Gt in 1950 to 24 Gt in 2004 (World Resources Institute, 2005). Overall worldwide secretions which include all greenhouse gases, agriculture and land use change are nearing 45 Gt CO2-equivalent every year. Most of these discharges are generated by burning fossil fuels for energy in power and heat generation and transport, and by changes in land use, specifically deforestation, and from agriculture. In like manner, discharges from burning fossil fuels for the power and transport segments have risen with a substantial upturn in the 1950s. These are major pursuits in the economy and as it is energy use has a propensity to escalate together with economic activity. Threat of Negative Effects from Climate Change Increase with its Magnitude Source: Climate Change 2001: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability IPCC, Summary for Policy Makers Impact on People and Livelihood Climate change have severe regional and worldwide effects that are constantly expected from most climate models which correspondingly have intense effects on people's lives and their sources of income. For instance, climate change is most likely to trigger major water shortages for hundreds of millions of inhabitants in Asia and South America whose dry season supplies originate from liquefied snow and glaciers (Barnett, Adam & Lettenmaier, 2005, pp. 303-309). In several parts of the world, glaciers thaw out at an exceptional rate. In Peru, glacial coverage fell by 25% in the past 30 years while in China, practically all glaciers have displayed significant thawing out, with implications for nearly one quarter of the nation's populace that depend on melted glaciers for water supply. Such hastened thawing out of glaciers could lead to flooding during the spring time then water shortages ensue in the summer from a used up reserve. There are also anticipated changes in the Indian monsoon which certainly will have
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Explaination of the Importance of Reflective Practice in Coaching - Term Paper Example However, in the twentieth century, this trend of the teacher to student communication changed radically. In the context of this essay, it is important to note that modern coaching practices have been evolving as a two-way mechanism, where the learner is not the only learner, but the teacher or coach is also a learner at times. This sort of reflective practice would be a life long process which has been explored and analyzed on the basis of the various models and processes provided by continued research and development. Also, it becomes the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to some extent that he or she frankly communicates with the coach; otherwise the process of sustained coach education would be largely impaired. Key Concepts and Processes of Reflective Practice The concepts and processes in relation to reflective practice have been primarily based on the various reflective models provided by the eminent educationists, psychologists and researchers in this field. Argyris and Schon: T he reflective model provided by Argyris and Schon introduces us to the idea of Single Loop Learning and Double Loop Learning. The theory has been built on the basis of the amendment and recognition of an observed error or fault. Single Loop Learning is the practice when an organization or practitioner continuously relies on current techniques, policies or strategies even after some error occurred and a correction had to be made. This continues until a similar situation is encountered again. However, the practice of Double Loop Learning is comparatively more innovative since it provides for alteration of the current techniques, policies or strategies on the account of an error observed. Thus, in this process, innovative ideas can be introduced when a similar situation is encountered again. (Schon, 1983) Kolb, 1984: The experiential way of learning involves the application of the information received from the educator to the experiences of the learner. It does not consist of activity generated in the classroom alone. The student does not acquire his or her knowledge exclusively from the teacher.Ã