Sunday, July 26, 2020
Im Going To Upload It Example Im Going To Upload It â" Essay Example > IntroductionBacterial meningitisThe case study below is of Tatum, a two year old girl who was diagnosed with bacterial meningitis. Meningitis is a disease that is characterized by inflammation of the brain and spinal cord membranes. The disease is either caused by bacteria or virus (Kneib, 2005, p 15). This disease affects people of all ages from children to adults. When it affects children, it may hinder them form attaining their normal growth and development process. The normal growth and development that is acceptable for a child of twoyears of ageChild growth and development entails the biological and psychological changes that take place in the bodies of children since the time of birth until they reach adolescence. Rene, (2010, p 657) says that every child takes the growth and development path in a unique way but there are certain traits that are common to children at a particular stage. Some of the developments that are expected in a child of two years include the ability t o walk freely on the ground. The child can also stand in an upright position on his or her own. The child, at this stage, is always moving and grows cognitively such that she can be able to use objects for their right purposes (Rene, 2010, p 654). Children at this stage also understand the importance of language in explaining something to others (Santrock, 2008, p 411). The child is able to use negative language in expressing negative statements. The child is also able to use singulars and plurals. At two years the child is no longer a baby and can feed by himself or herself. However, the child cannot reason but does new things or learns new words every day (Kail, 2006, p. 50). The child also attains social and emotional growth and she or he is able to show signs of empathy and care. She can comfort another child who is crying and can also use physical aggression when she is frustrated. This is an indication that the child is developing their emotions (Kail, 2006, p. 54). Some fac tors such as disease can affect the normal growth and development of a child and may slow down the development process hindering it from attaining the required growth at a particular age. A disease such as meningitis can make the child unable to play, eat well or even drink. This may affect the general aspects of growth and development of a child who is affected by meningitis (Volpe, 2008, p. 114). Pathophysiology of Bacterial meningitisBacterial meningitis is caused by several types of bacteria which include Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Other types are Streptococcus pneumonia and Neisseria meningitides and are the most common (Klosterman, 2006, p. 22). The bacteria that commonly causes meningitis is found in the environment but can also live in the nose and the respiratory tract of human beings without causing any harm. Meningococcal meningitis is the disease that is responsible for more than half of the bacterial meningitis cases in the United States, also caused by Neis seria meningitides (Klosterman, 2006, p. 22). Bacterial meningitis is mostly common among children between the age of one month and two years. It only affects adults who are at risk factors such as those who take alcohol or those suffering nose or ear infections and those with head injuries (Bakay, Lee, 2006, p. 122). The bacteria that causes meningitis reaches the meninges through various means which include the blood stream, contact between the affected and non affected meninges, and also through the nasal cavity. Once the bacteria enter the blood stream, they travel along the subarachnoid space up to places where the barrier of brain and blood is weak such as in the choroid plexus (Routh, 2006, p. 41). Extensive inflammation therefore takes place in the subarachnoid space which is not directly due to infection of bacteria, but also as a result of the response by the immune system to the entrance of the bacteria into the central nervous system (Routh, 2006, p. 41).